Thursday, July 29, 2010
Paralysis or Chorea
Paralysis is the complete loss of muscle function for one or more muscles. Paralysis can be accompanied by a loss of feeling (sensory loss) in the affected area, if there is sensory damage as well as motor.
Paralysis is most often caused by damage in the nervous system, especially the spinal cord. Other major causes are stroke, trauma with nerve injury, poliomyelitis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), botulism, spina bifida, multiple sclerosis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Temporary paralysis occurs during REM sleep, and dysregulation of this system can lead to episodes of waking paralysis. Drugs that interfere with nerve function, such as curare, can also cause paralysis. There are many known causes for paralysis, and perhaps more yet to be discovered.
Pseudoparalysis (pseudo- meaning false, not genuine) is voluntary restriction or inhibition of motion because of pain, incoordination, or other cause, and is not due to actual muscular paralysis. In an infant, it may be a symptom of congenital syphilis.
Signs and Symptoms of Paralysis
The signs and symptoms of paralysis will depend upon what caused the paralysis, as well as what parts of the body are affected. Loss of movement and feeling can be sudden and immediate, such as with trauma or stroke, or it can begin with muscle weakness and gradually progress, particularly when it is caused by certain diseases or illnesses.
Effects of Paralysis
The effects of paralysis will depend upon its severity, as well as what parts of the body it affects. Depending upon the severity of the paralysis as well as its underlying causes, it can affect the arms, legs, arms and legs, or trunk. Paralysis can present on the right side or the left side of the body, or it can present unilaterally. Paralysis caused by damage to the nervous system can affect the nerves carrying sensory information, as well as the nerves which control the heart, lungs, glands, and intestines. When paralysis is caused by damage to the brain, speech, behavior, and cognitive ability can also be affected.
Indirect Effects of Paralysis
Because paralysis causes immobility, it has a rather significant effect on the other systems in the body. These include:
• Changes to circulation and respiration
• Changes to the kidneys and gastrointestinal system
• Changes to muscles, joints, and bones
• Spasticity of the limbs
• Muscle spasms
• Pressure sores
• Blood clots in the lower limbs
• Feelings of numbness or pain
• Skin injury
• Bacterial infection
• Disruption of the normal working of the tissues, glands, and organs
• Loss of control of urination
• Sexual difficulties
• Abnormal sweating
• Abnormal breathing or heart rate
• Balance problems
• Difficulty thinking
• Behavioral issues
• Difficulty speaking or swallowing
• Vision problems
Treatment for Paralysis
The treatment for paralysis is to treat its underlying cause. The loss of function caused by long-term paralysis can be treated through a comprehensive rehabilitation program. Rehabilitation includes:
• Physical therapy. The physical therapist focuses on mobility. Physical therapy helps develop strategies to compensate for paralysis by using those muscles that still have normal function, helps maintain and build any strength and control that remain in the affected muscles, and helps maintain range of motion in the affected limbs to prevent muscles from shortening (contracture) and becoming deformed. If nerve regrowth is expected, physical therapy is used to retrain affected limbs during recovery. A physical therapist also suggests adaptive equipment such as braces, canes, or wheelchairs.
• Occupational therapy. The occupational therapist focuses on daily activities such as eating and bathing. Occupational therapy develops special tools and techniques that permit self-care and suggests ways to modify the home and workplace so that a patient with an impairment may live a normal life.
• Other specialties. The nature of the impairment may mean that the patient needs the services of a respiratory therapist, vocational rehabilitation counselor, social worker, speech-language pathologist, nutritionist, special education teacher, recreation therapist, or clinical psychologist.
Medicine for Paralysis
Qurs Aksir Falij-o-Laqwa, Majun Azaraqi, Majun Jograj Gogal etc,.